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Use of antibiotics has always an impact on the microbiome of the person who receives the treatment, in both pathogen and saprophytic bacteria. Antibiotics cause a selection of resistant bacteria, and this fact must be considered an adverse effect. Pediatric populations in Spain receive more antibiotics than children from other European countries. Different studies show an inadequacy in an important percentage of treatments prescribed. Because of this reason, and also because of the known fact that populations with a higher consume of antibiotics develop higher resistance rates, we need to make improvements in antibiotic prescription. The goal must be to control infections while minimizing the risk of adverse effects and induction of resistances. In order to achieve this goal, bacterial infections must be confirmed with available diagnostic methods, and in empirical prescriptions, the choice of the antibiotic prescribed must be done according to the usual pathogens responsible for the process, resistance patterns, and sensitivity, characteristics of the antibiotic, and the patient. Those data must be current, collected locally, and taken from a population resembling closely the patient that will be prescribed the antibiotic treated. We are going to describe the precise data to take in account in the most usual bacterial infections, to be managed in community settings.
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