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Vol. 23 - Num. 89

Original Papers

Analysis of 37 cases of leishmaniasis in children, diagnosed in a region of Valencia, Spain

Yolanda Mañes Jiméneza, Gema M.ª Pedrón Marzala

aServicio de Pediatría. Hospital Lluís Alcanyís. Játiva. Valencia. España.

Reference of this article: Mañes Jiménez Y, Pedrón Marzal GM. Analysis of 37 cases of leishmaniasis in children, diagnosed in a region of Valencia, Spain. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. 2021;23:33-41.

Published in Internet: 17-03-2021 - Visits: 291

Abstract

Introduction: the objective was to analyze the increase in leishmaniasis incidence observed in the Xativa-Ontinyent Department of the Valencian Community, Spain, and establish a clinical pattern, assessing the form of presentation, diagnosis and response to treatment.

Methods: retrospective epidemiological study in children under 15 years of age, with a diagnosis of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, at the Lluís Alcanyís de Xàtiva hospital, from January 2009 to December 2018.

Results: 37 cases of leishmaniasis, 15 visceral and 22 cutaneous were collected. The median age was 17 months for visceral and 2 years and 8 months for cutaneous. At the time of diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis all presented fever, anemia and splenomegaly. In cutaneous leishmaniasis they presented as plaque or erythematous papule. Its diagnostic confirmation was made in 68% by direct visualization in the biopsy of the amastigote lesion, and in 32% by smear PCR or skin biopsy. In visceral leishmaniasis, bone marrow aspirate was positive in 25% and peripheral blood PCR in 100%. All visceral leishmaniasis were treated with liposomal amphotericin B, with a disappearance of the fever at 72 hours. 91% of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with meglumine antimony, and all evolved favorably.

Conclusions: the increase in the incidence of leishmaniasis in the years collected is confirmed and the clinical profile of these pediatric patients is analyzed, which is different from that of the adult, and they have a good response to treatment.

Keywords

Child Cutaneous leishmaniasis Diagnosis Leishmania Visceral leishmaniasis

 

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