Vol. 24 - Num. 95
aPrograma de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Católica San Antonio. Murcia. España.
bMétodos Estadísticos Aplicados en Investigación Médica. Universidad Católica San Antonio. Murcia. España. Facultad de Epidemiología y Salud de la Población. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Londres. Reino Unido .
cFacultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Católica San Antonio. Murcia. España.
dUnidad de Córnea, Catarata y Cirugía Refractiva. Vissum Miranza. Departamento de Oftalmología. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Miguel Hernández. Alicante. España.
Correspondence: JL Alió. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reference of this article: Torrecillas Peralta J, Prieto Merino D, Lajara Blesa J, Alió Sanz JL, Alió del Barrio JL. Prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with amblyopia in preschool children . Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. 2022;24:e291-e299.
Published in Internet: 20-09-2022 - Visits: 1044
Objective: to estimate the prevalence of amblyopia and its treatment in preschool children in the province of Alicante over a long time period, and assess the influence of different sociodemographic factors.
Methods: cross-sectional descriptive observational study (2002-2015) using a validated amblyopia detection protocol (sensitivity, 89.3%; specificity, 93.1%) in preschool children aged 4 to 6 years. The primary outcome was the classification of the 140 102 examined children based on the test results ('normal', 'suspected amblyopia' or 'in treatment') and the explanatory variables: age, sex, school year, private/public ownership of school and school location.
Results: the prevalence of children with suspected amblyopia varied significantly between school years, ranging from 8.54% to 23.9% (p=0.00000). The prevalence of suspected amblyopia was significantly higher in children aged 6 years (16.68%; p=0.00000) and lowest in those attending private schools (8.05%; p=0.00000). The probability that a child with abnormal results was already in treatment increased with age (OR 2.06; p<0.001) and with enrolment in a private school (OR 1.56; p=0.001).
Conclusions: the prevalence of suspected amblyopia was high in the study area, with a higher risk in older children and children in to the lowest socioeconomic status group. School-based screening programs for early detection of amblyopia are recommended to increase and equalize access to treatment, thereby reducing the prevalence and severity of amblyopia in children.
Keywords● Amblyopia ● Primary care ● Visual acuity ● Visual impairment
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